هل قدم الحضارة المصرية القديمة تثبت خطأ تقويم الكتاب المقدس والطوفان؟ الجزء الرابع

 

Holy_bible_1

 

لنك نص كلامه بالكامل حسب ترجمة واديل 

Full text of "Manetho, with an English translation by W.G. Waddell"

http://archive.org/stream/manethowithengli00maneuoft/manethowithengli00maneuoft_djvu.txt

بعض القوائم التي اعتمدت على مانيتو

Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period (Pre-Dynastic, sometimes called Dynasty 0), when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms, and the First and Second Dynasties which saw their unification.

Early dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. (The Nile flows Northward.) The following list may not be complete:

Name

Comments

Dates

Seka

-

 ?

Tiu (Tau?)

-

 ?

Thesh

-

 ?

Neheb

-

 ?

Hsekiu

-

 ?

Wazner

(Uatchnar?)

c3100 BC?

Mekha

-

 ?

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the adjacent desert. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name

Comments

Dates

Serket I

Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab 
- had scorpion insignia

c. 3200 BC?

Iry-Hor

- existence uncertain

c.3150 BC?

Ka

-

c3100 BC

Serket II

Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion"; possibly the same person as Narmer.

c.3100 BC

Narmer

Considered by some to be the king who united Upper and Lower Egypt

c.3100 BC

First Dynasty

The system of "Dynasties" is based on the groupings provided by Manetho in his book "Aegyptaica" (Egyptian history) written about 300 BC. The system generally, but not exclusively, follows bloodlines but does not appear to have been in use in the earliest times in Egypt. The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC at Abydos (Thnis).

Name

Comments

Dates

Menes (Mena)
Hor-Aha

Generally considered to have been the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. In earlier lists also known as Min and Meni

c.3050 BC

Djer

-

2 years

Merneith

Regent for Djet and Den

-

Djet (Wadj)

-

23 years

Den

-

14 to 20 years

Anedjib (Adjib)

-

26 years

Semerkhet

-

9 to 18 years

Qa'a

-

2916?-2890

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC at Abydos.

Name

Comments

Dates

Hotepsekhemwy (Hetepsekhemwy)

-

2890-?

Raneb

-

39 years

Nynetjer (Ninetjer)

-

23 years

Wneg

-

8 years

Senedj

-

20 years

Seth-Peribsen

-

17 years

Khasekhem
(later) Khasekhemwy

Rhasekhemui?
May have commissioned the

Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the pyramids.
His funerary enclosure was at Abydos (Shunet el-Zebib), 14 boats have been found nearby but may be older. Also built a funerary enclosure at Hierakonpolis.

?-2686 BC

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilizational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2630 - 2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis (slightly south and west of modern Cairo), where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time. The Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Sanakhte

First known cartouche

2686-2668

Nebka

in Turin list, now questionable.

??

Djoser (Zoser or Djeser)
(Netjerikhet, Netjerykhet or Netcheriche)

Possibly son or step-son of Khasekhemwy.
Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first pyramid. Recent evidence suggests that he followed Khasekhemwy.

2668-2649

Sekhemkhet
(Djoser Tati)

Unfinished pyramid or mastaba at Saqqara

2649-2643

Zanakht 
(Nebka)

Omitted on some lists

?

Khaba

Probable owner of step pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.

2643-2637

Huni

Built at least 8 step pyramids, not used as tombs, each about 60 X 60 feet (18 meters) at various locations in upper and lower Egypt.
Possibly he began the Pyramid at Meidum.
Probable builder of a small mud brick Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash).

2637-2613

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the Pharaohs who had the famous Giza Pyramids built: Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen)

Comments

Dates

Sneferu
(Snefru or Snofru)

Commissioned three large pyramids,
The now broken pyramid at Meidum,
and the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur.
Two small pyramids may also be from his reign.

2613-2589

Khufu (Chufu)

Greek form: Cheops
Commissioned the "Great Pyramid" at Giza.

2589-2566

Djedefra
(Djedfra, Djedefre, Radjedef or Redjedef)

pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash)

2566-2558

Khafra (Cha-ef-re, Khafre or Kaphere)

Greek form: Chephren, Cephrenes, Kephren or Chefren
Commissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza

2558-2532

-

here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
May have an unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.

-

Menkaure (Menkaura)

Greek form: Mycerinus or Mykerinos
Commissioned the third Giza Pyramid

2532-2503

Shepseskaf (Shepseskare)

Unfinished mastaba at Saqqara

2503-2498

-

here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho

-

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC. All the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs built pyramids, although on a smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty.

Name

Comments

Dates

Userkaf

Pyramid at Saqqara

2498-2491

Sahure

Pyramid at Abusir

2487-2477

Neferirkare Kakai
(Neferirkara)

Pyramid at Abusir

2477-2467

Queen Khentkawes (wife of Neferirkare Kakai)

May have ruled for a time on her own.
Pyramid at Abusir

??

Shepseskare Isi
(Shepseskara)

Probably began a pyramid at Abusir.

2467-2460

Neferefre
(Raneferef)

Unfinished pyramid at Abusir.

2460-2453

Nyuserre Ini
(Niuserre or Niuserra)

Pyramid at Abusir

2453-2422

Menkauhor Kaiu

Built a pyramid at Saqqara, reported by Lepsius in 1842, then lost. Re-discovered (probably) in 2008.

2422-2414

Djedkare Isesi
(Djedkara Izezi)

Pyramid at Saqqara

2414-2375

Unas
(Unis, Oenas, Ounas or Wenis)

Pyramid at Saqqara
Tomb inscribed with "Pyramid Texts"
- First known "Book of the Dead".

2375-2345

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Teti

Pyramid at Saqqara

2345-2333

Userkare

-

2333-2332

Pepi I Meryre Radjedef 
(Pepy I) 

Pyramid at Saqqara

2332-2283

Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
(Merenra)

Pyramid at Saqqara

2283-2278

Pepi II Neferkare 
(Pepy II) 

Perhaps the longest reign of any historic king.
Pyramid at Saqqara

2278-2184

Merenre Nemtyemsaf II

Uncertain pharaoh.

2184

Nitiqret

A female ruler.

2184-2181

First intermediate period

The First Intermediate Period

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of Pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes, was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html)

Nomen

Prenomen

Notes

---

Neferkara I

-

Nebi

Neferkara

-

---

Djedkara Shemai

-

---

Neferkara Khendu

-

-

 

some authorities place here Merenhor

Seneferka

Neferkamin

-

---

Nikara

-

---

Neferkara Tereru

-

---

Neferkahor

-

---

Neferkara Pepyseneb

-

---

Neferkamin Anu

-

Iby (Ibi or Ity)

Qakara
Pyramid at Saqqara

-

---

Neferkara II

-

Khuwihap

Neferkawhor

-

---

Neferirkara

-

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I)

-

2160- ?

Meribre Khety II

-

 ?

Neferkare III

-

 ?

Nebkaure (Acthoes II)

-

 ?

Setut

-

 ?

Wakhare Khety I

-

 ?

Merykare

Possible owner of a pyramid at Saqqara

 ?

Wankhare Khety II

-

 ?

Menethoupe I

-

 ?

Wankhare Khety III

-

 ?

Khety II

-

 ?

Khety II's daughter

-

 ?

Merikare's daughter

-

 ? -2130

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Meryhathor

-

2130- ?

Neferkare IV

-

 ?

Wankare (Acthoes III)

-

 ?

Merykare

-

 ?

-

-

 ? -2040

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Intef I 
(Inyotef Sehertawy)

-

2134-2117

Intef II 
(Inyotef Wahankh)

-

2117-2069

Intef III 
(Inyotef Naktnebtepnufer)

-

2069-2060

Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I
(Menthotp)

Gained control of all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins.

2060-2010

Sankhkare Mentuhotep II
(Menthotp)

-

2010-1998

Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III
(Menthotp)

-

1997-1991

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of foreign trade. Wealth from this trade eventually led to an invasion by the Hyksos.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and was considered by later Egyptians as their greatest age.

Name

Comments

Dates

Amenemhat I
(Amenemhet I)

-Original Pharaoh to open trade outside Egypt.
Pyramid at Lisht

1991-1962

Senusret I 
(Sesostris, Senwosret or Senwosri I)

Pyramid at Lisht

1971-1926

Amenemhat II
(Amenemhet II)

"White" pyramid at Dahshur

1929-1895

Senusret II (Sesostris or Senwosret II)

Limestone and mud-brick pyramid at Illahun (el-Lahun

1897-1878

Senusret III (Sesostris or Senwosret III)

Pyramid at Dahshur
with a large mortuary temple.
Six boats were discovered in 1893.

1878-1860

Amenemhat III
(Amenemhet III)

"Black" pyramid at Dahshur.
Tomb is a pyramid at Hawara.
The extensive mortuary temple of this pyramid may be the "Egyptian Labyrinth" of classical writers. Mostly destroyed.

1860-1815

Amenemhat IV
(Amenemhet IV)

-Had a coregency lasting at least 1 year, based on an Inscription at Konosso

1815-1807

Queen Sobekneferu 
(Nefrusobk Sebekkare)

A rare female ruler.

1807-1803

Second intermediate period

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Eastern Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I (little wonder, that.). They are counted as Pharaohs of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The several dynastys of the second intermediate period sometimes ruled in different areas at the same time.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. About 70 Pharaohs ruled during this period.

Name

Comments

Dates

Wegaf
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Khutawyre

- Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri

1803-1799 4 Years

Sekhemkare

- Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 

3 years

Amenemhat

-

1795-1792

Sehetepre

-

 ? -1790

Iufni

-

 ?

Seankhibre

-

 ?

Semenkare

-

 ?

Sehetepre

-

 ?

Sewadjkare

-

 ?

Nedjemibre

-7 Months

 ?

Sobekhotep I

-

 ?

Renseneb

-4 Months

c. 1775

Hor

-

c. 1775

Sedjefakare

-A well known king attested on numerous stele and other documents

-c.5 to 7 Yrs

Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep

c. 1767

Khendjer

-Minimum 4 Yrs
Pyramid at Saqqara

c. 1765

Imyremeshaw

-

 ?

Antef V

-

 ?

Kng Seth

-

 ?

Sobekhotep III

-4 Years & 2 Months

c. 1755

Ameny-Qemau 
(Amenyqemau)

position uncertain
Unfinished pyramid at Dahshur.

c.1750

Neferhotep I

-11 Years

1751-1740

Sobekhotep IV

-10 or 11 Yrs

1740-1730

Sobekhotep V

-

c. 1730

Wahibre Ibiau

-10 Yrs & 8 Months

c. 1725-1714

Merneferre Ai

-23 Yrs & 8 Months

c. 1714-1691

Merhetepre Ini

-2 Yrs & 2 Months

 ?

Seankhenre Sewadtjew

-

 ?

Mersekhemre Ined

-

 ?

Sewadjkare Hori

-

 ?

the position of the following kings is uncertain

Name

Comments

Dates

Dudimose I

-

c. 1654

Dudimose II

-

 ?

Senebmiu

-

 ?

Mentuhotep V

-

 ?

Senaayeb

-

 ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Nehesy

-

c. 1705

Khakherewre ?

-

 ?

Nebefawre

-

c. 1704

Sehebre ?

-

 ?

Merdjefare

-

c. 1699

Sewadjkare ?

-

 ?

Nebdjefare

-

c. 1694

Webenre ?

-

 ?

 ?

-

 ?

-djefare ?

-

 ?

-webenre

-

c. 1690

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq) to establish a short-lived governance over the northern Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name

Comments

Dates

Sheshi

Ruled either 1 or 3 years

1674- ?

Yakubher

-

 ?

Khyan

-

30-40 Years

Apepi I

-

40 Years or more

Khamudy

-

 ? -1535

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:

Nomen (Praenomen)

Comments

Dates

-

name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered

-

Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy)

-

3 years 

Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy)

-

16 years

Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy)

-

1 year

Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra)

-

1 year

Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra)

-

26 years

Nebiryraw II

-

3 months?

- (Semenra)

-

1 year?

Bebiankh (Sewoserenra)

-

12 years

- (Sekhemreshedwaset)

-

3 months?

-

names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered

-

Some sources include as many as six more names - Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) - who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty in Upper (Southern) Egypt was centered in Thebes and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name

Comments

Dates

Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw

-

1650- ?

Intef V the Elder

-

3 years

Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat

-

 ?

Antef VII Nubkheperre

-

 ?

Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat

-

-

Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw

-

-

Thuty

-

1 year

Mentuhotep VI

-

1 year

Nebiryerawet I

-

6 years

Nebiryerawet II

-

 ?

Semenmedjatre

-

 ?

Seuserenre

-

12 years

Shedwast

-

 ?

Intef VII

-

3 or more years

Senakhtenre

-

 ?

Tao I the Elder

-

c.1633?

Tao II the Brave
Sekenenre-tao

Probably killed in battle with the Hyksos

c. 1554

Kamose

-

1553-1550

 

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC.

The New Kingdom began with the expulsion of the Hyksos (Hykdod) from Northern Egypt. A succession of Pharaohs enlarged the country, eventually experiencing Egypt's greatest territorial extent. Egypt extended far into Nubia in the south, Libya in the west, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:

Name

Comments

Dates

Ahmose I
(Ahmosis I)

Son of Sekenenre-tao (Seventeenth dynasty)
Expelled the Hyksos from Northern Egypt.

1550-1525

Amenhotep I (Amenophis)

Began the Temple of Karnak, Thebes. First Pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings

1525-1504

Thutmose I (Thutmosis)

-

1504-1492

Thutmose II (Thutmosis)

-

1492-1479

Queen Hatshepsut
(Maatkare)

Built the Temple at Deir El Bahari.

1473-1458

Thutmose III (Thutmosis)

Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died he began expanding Egyptian rule into the near east.

1479-1425

Amenhotep II (Amenophis)

-

1427-1400

Thutmose IV (Thutmosis)

-

1400-1390

Amenhotep III (Amenophis)

Built much of the Temple of Luxor on the site of an older Opet shrine. Built the Colossi of Memnon.

1390-1352

Amenhotep IV (Amenophis)
/ Akhenaten (Akhenaton)
(Neferkheprure waenre)

Founder of a brief period of monotheism ("Atenism") in Egypt, the worship of the Sun as symbol of the only God. During his rule there developed a very distinctive artistic style. His queen, Nefertiti, ruled as an equal.
Moved the capitol to Akhetaten.

1352-1336

Meritaten 

Daughter of Akhenaten, rule uncertain

???

Smenkhkare (Smenkhare)

Uncertain relationship to Akhenaten. Unproven speculation that this is Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten. (as Neferneferuaten). Other scholars believe he is a brother or son of Akhenaten.

1338-1336

Tutankhamun (originally Tutankhaten)
(King Tut) 

Probably the son of Akhenaten. Became Pharaoh at about age 8. Reinstated the old polytheistic religion and moved the capitol back to Thebes. Only Pharaoh whose tomb has been found largely intact.

1336-1327

Kheperkheprure Ai (Ay or Aya)

Regent for Tutankhamun, took the throne after Tut's death. Probably the father of Queen Nefertiti.

1327-1323

Horemheb (Haremhab)

Born a commoner.
Military General of Northern Egypt for Akhenaton and advisor to Tutankhamun

1323-1295

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1295 to 1186 BC:

Name

Comments

Dates

Ramesses I (Rameses)

-

1295-1294

Seti I 
(Sethos I or Sety I))

Re-established the military power of Egypt.
AKA Samethis, Psammetichus or Psammuthis.

1294-1279

Ramesses II the Great
(Rameses Sesostris or Ramessu)

The Pharaoh usually associated with Moses.
Reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the earliest known peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Built more temples and had more statues of himself than any other Pharaoh. 

1279-1213

Merneptah (Merenptah)

A stele (carved stone monument) describing his campaigns in Libya and Palestine contains the first known reference to the Israelites.

1213-1203

Amenemses

-

1203-1200

Seti II (Sethos)

-

1200-1194

Merneptah Siptah

-

1194-1188

Queen Twosret
(Tawosret or Twosre)

Widow of Seti II
Country largely ruled by a Syrian named Bay.

1188-1186

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1070 BC:

Name

Comments

Dates

Setnakhte (Sethnakhte)

-

1186-1183

Ramesses III (Rameses)

Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC.

1183-1152

Ramesses IV (Rameses)

-

1152-1146

Ramesses V (Rameses)

-

1146-1142

Ramesses VI (Rameses)

-

1142-1134

Ramesses VII (Rameses)

-

1134-1126

Ramesses VIII (Rameses)

-

1126-1124

Ramesses IX (Rameses)

-

1124-1106

Ramesses X (Rameses)

-

1106-1102

Ramesses XI (Rameses)

-

1102-1069

Third intermediate period

The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC.

Name

Comments